Further reading

This is a (by no means definitive) reading list, compiled up to December 2022, of all things Iron Age UK/Ireland torcs and a few related extras….


Adams, S., Bruck, J. & Webley, L. 2017. The Social Context of Technology: non-ferrous metalworking in later prehistoric Britain and Ireland. Prehistoric Society Research Papers, 11.

Allan, J. 1948. The Snettisham find. The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, SixthSeries, Vol. 8, No. 3/4, 233-235

Armbruster, B. 2015. Approaches to metalwork: The role of technology in tradition, innovation, and cultural change. In T. Moore & X-L. Armada (eds), Atlantic Europe in the First Millennium BC: Crossing the Divide, 417-438. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Armbruster, B. 2021. Les ors de l’Europe Atlantique à l’âge du Bronze: Technologie et ateliers. APC.

Armbruster, B & Guerra, M. F. 2012. Annular gold ornaments from western Gaul: Archaeometallurgical aspects of the Lasgraȉsses ensemble, Tarn, France (3rd century BC). Historical Metallurgy 46 (2), 55–65

Armbruster, B., Nordez, M., Blet-Lemarquand, M., Milcent, S-Y., Nieto-Pelletier, S., Schönfelder, M. and Schwab, R. Celtic gold torcs – An interdisciplinary and diachronic perspective. Monographies Instrumentum 73, 433-456

Atherton, R. 2016. The Newark Iron Age torc. Transactions of the Thoroton Society of Nottinghamshire. 120, 43-53

Avery, M. 1997. The Patterns of the Broighter Torc. Journal of Irish Archaeology, Vol. 8, 73-89

BBC. 2022. Celtic ruler’s ring goes under hammer for £36,000 at auction. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-york-north-yorkshire-63660018

Bayley, J, 1992. Goldworking in Britain from Iron Age to Medieval times. Interdisciplinary Science Review 17 (4), 314-321

Brailsford, J.W. 1951. The Snettisham Treasure. British Museum Quarterly 16(3), 79–80

Brailsford, J.W. 1971. The Sedgeford Torc. British Museum Quarterly 35(1), 16–19

Brailsford, J.W. and Stapley, J. E. 1972. The Ipswich Torcs. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 38, 219-234

Burnham, B. C. and Burnham H. B. 2004. Dolaucothi-Pumsaint: Survey and Excavations at a Roman Gold Mining Complex, 1987–1999, Oxford: Oxbow Books

Burns, J.E. 1971. Additional torcs from Snettisham, Norfolk, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, Volume 37, Issue 1, 228-229

Bushe Fox, J.P. 1915. Excavations at Hengistbury Head, Hampshire in 1911-12. Oxford: Society of Antiquaries of London

Cahill, M. 2010. Safe Secrets 2 – a newly discovered Iron Age Gold torc. Archaeology Ireland 24(2), 6–7

Cartwright, C., Meeks, N., Hook, D., Mongiatti, A. & Joy, J. 2012. Organic cores from the Iron Age Snettisham torc hoards: Technological insights revealed by scanning electron microscopy. In C. Cartwright, N. Meeks, D. Hook & A. Mongiatti (eds), Historical Technology, Materials and Conservation, 21–9. London, Archetype.

Celtic Gold Project. 2022. https://celticgold.hypotheses.org/the-celtic-gold-project

Chittock, H. 2019. Iron Age antiques: Assessing the functions of old objects in Britain from 400 BC to AD 100. In C. Gosden, H. Chittock, C. Nimura & P. Hommel (eds), Art in the Eurasian Iron Age: Context, connections, and scale. Oxford: Oxbow. 77-97.

Choate, S. 1966. Creative Casting. London: George Allen & Unwin

Clarke, B. 2014. Unlocking the Secrets of the Ribbon Torc. Ribbon torc productions, Ireland. Video available at: https://vimeo.com/116055183.

Clarke, R.R. 1951. A Celtic torc terminal from North Creake, Norfolk. Archaeological Journal 106, 59–61

Clarke, R.R. 1954. The early Iron Age treasure from Snettisham, Norfolk. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 20, 27–86

Clarke, R.R., 1956. ‘The Snettisham treasure’, in Bruce-Mitford, R.L.S. (ed.), Recent Archaeological Excavations in Britain, 21-42

Crawford, H.S. 1925. The Engraved Bone Objects Found at Lough Crew, Co. Meath, in 1865. The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 15/1, 15-29

Echt, R., Marx, M., Megaw, V., Thiele, W.-R., Van Impe, L. and Verhart, L. 2011. An Iron Age gold torc from Heerlen (prov. Limburg/NL). Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt. 31. 31-49

Eluère, C. 1983. Prehistoric Goldwork in Western Europe. Gold Bulletin 16 (3), 82–91.

Eluère, C. 1985. Goldwork of the Iron Age in `Barbarian’ Europe. Gold Bulletin 18 (4), 144–155.

Eluère, C. 1987. Celtic gold torcs. Gold Bulletin 20, 22–37.

Farley, J & Hunter, F (eds). 2015. Celts: Art and identity. The British Museum & National Museums of Scotland.

Farley J, Gilmore T, Sutherland Z and Nicolls A 2018, ‘The Leekfrith torcs’ Transactions of the Staffordshire Archaeological and Historical Society 50, 110 – 114.

Feachem, R.W. 1958. The ‘Cairnmuir’ hoard from Netherurd, Peebleshire. Proceedings of the Antiquaries of Scotland 91, 112–116

Fitzpatrick, A.P. 1992. The Snettisham, Norfolk, hoards of Iron Age torques: sacred or profane?. Antiquity, 66, pp 395-398

Fitzpatrick, A. 2007. Dancing with dragons: fantastic animals in the earlier Celtic art of Iron Age Britain. In Haselgrove, C and Moore, T (eds). The Later Iron Age in Britain and beyond. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 339-357

Fox, C. 1958. Pattern and Purpose: A Survey of Early Celtic Art in Britain. Cardiff: The National Museum of Wales.

Fregni, E. G. 2014. The Compleat Metalsmith: Craft and technology in the British Bronze Age. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Fregni, E. G. 2019. Looking over the shoulder of the Bronze Age metalsmith: Recognising the crafter in archaeological artefacts. In C. T. Burke & S. M. Spencer-Wood (eds), Crafting in the World: Materiality in the Making, 37–49. Cham, Springer.

Garrow, D., Gosden, C. & Hill, J.D. 2008. Rethinking Celtic Art. London: Oxbow.

Garrow, D., Gosden, C., Hill, J.D. and Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009. Dating Celtic Art: a Major Radiocarbon Dating Programme of Iron Age and Early Roman Metalwork in Britain. Archaeological Journal 166:1, 79-123

Garrow, D. & Gosden, C. 2012. Technologies of Enchantment? Exploring Celtic Art: 400BC to AD 100. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Giles, M. 2012. A Forged Glamour: Landscape, Identity and Material Culture in the Iron Age. Windgather Press

Gosden, C. 2013. Technologies of Routine and of Enchantment. In Chua, L and Elliott, M (eds) Distributed objects: meaning and mattering after Alfred Gell. Berghahn, New York. 39-57

Haselgrove, C. 2009. Noughts and crosses: The Archaeology of ‘globules-à-la-Croix’. In J. van Heesch & I. Heeren (eds), Coinage in the Iron Age: Essays in honour of Simone Scheers, 173–86. London: Spink

Haselgrove, C. & Moore, T. (eds). 2007. The Later Iron Age in Britain and Beyond. Oxford: Oxbow Books

Hautenauve, H. 1999. Les torques tubulaires de Snettisham. Importation continentale ou production insulaire? Lunala, Archaeologia Protohistorica 7, 89–100.

Hautenauve, H. 2001. Les torques de Fenouillet (Haute-Garonne) et celui de Gajić (Croatie) : l’hypothèse de l’atelier unique. Bulletin de l’Association française pour l’étude de l’âge du fer, AFEAF, 19, 15-16

Hautenauve, H. 2004. Technical and metallurgical aspects of Celtic gold torcs in the British Isles (3rd–1st c. BC). In A. Perea, I. Montero & Ó. García-Vuelta (eds), Tecnología del oro antiguo: Europa y América [Ancient Gold Technology: Europe and America], 119–26. Anejos de Aespa 32. Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto de Historia, Departamento de Historia Antigua y Arqueología.

Hautenauve, H. 2005. Les Torcs D’Or du Second Âge du Fer en Europe: techniques, typologie et symbolique. Rennes: Association du Travaux du Laboratoire d’Anthropologie de l’Université de Rennes 1

Hawkes, C. F. C. 1936. The Needwood Forest Torc. The British Museum Quarterly 11(1), 3-4

Hawkes, C. F. C. 1940. An Iron Age Torc from Spettisbury Rings, Dorset. The Archaeological Journal 97, 112-114 

Hill, J.D. 2004. Sedgeford torc terminal. Portable Antiquities Scheme, record number: PAS-F070D5. Available at: https://finds.org.uk/database/artefacts/record/id/508203 [Accessed: 28/6/22]

Hill, J.D. 2005. Newark torc. Portable Antiquities Scheme, record number: DENO-4B33B7. Available at: https://finds.org.uk/database/artefacts/record/id/751306 [Accessed: 28/6/22]

Hill, J., Spence, A., Niece, S., & Worrell, S. 2004. The Winchester Hoard: A Find of Unique Iron Age Gold Jewellery from Southern England. The Antiquaries Journal, 84, 1-22.

Hunter, F. 1997. Iron Age coins in Scotland. Proceeding of the Society of Antiquaries Scotland 121, 513–25

Hunter, F. 1997. Iron Age hoarding in Scotland and Northern England. In Gwilt, A and Haselgrove, C. (eds) Reconstructing Iron Age Societies. Oxford: Oxbow monograph 71, 108-134

Hunter, F. 2007. Artefacts, regions and identities in the northern British Iron Age. In Haselgrove, C and Moore, T (eds). The Later Iron Age in Britain and beyond. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 286-296.

Hunter, F. 2010. A unique Iron Age gold hoard found near Stirling. PAST: The Newsletter of the Prehistoric Society 65 (July 2010), 3–5

Hunter, F. 2014. Auldearn. Discovery and Excavation in Scotland 15, 97

Hunter, F. 2014. Art in context: The massive metalworking tradition of north-east Scotland. In Gosden, C., Crawford, S. and Ulmschneider, K (eds). Celtic art in Europe: Making connections. Oxford: Oxbow, 325-340

Hunter, F. 2018.  The Blair Drummond (UK) hoard: Regional styles and international connections in the later Iron Age. In Schwab, R; Milcent, P-Y; Armbruster, B & Pernicka, E (eds), Early Iron Age Gold in Celtic Europe: Science, technology and Archaeometry. Proceedings of the International Congress held in Toulouse, France, 11-14 March 2015, 431-440. Rahden: Verlag Marie Leidorf GmbH

Hutcheson, N. 2003. Material Culture in the Landscape: A New Approach to the Snettisham Hoards. In Researching the Iron Age, J. Humphrey (eds), 87–97. Leicester Archaeology Monograph 11.

Hutcheson, N. 2004. Later Iron Age Norfolk: Metalwork, Landscape and Society. British Archaeological Reports, British Series 361

Hutcheson, N. 2007. An archaeological investigation of Later Iron Age Norfolk: Analysing hoarding patterns across the landscape. In Haselgrove & Moore 2007 (eds), 358-370.

Hutcheson, N. 2011. Excavations at Snettisham, Norfolk, 2004: Re-Investigating the Past. In The Iron Age in Northern East Anglia: New Work in the Land of the Iceni, J. A. Davies (eds), 41–8. British Archaeological Reports, British Series 549

Jacobstahl, P. 1969. Early Celtic Art. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Joachim, H-E. 1995. Waldalgesheim: Das Grab einer keltischen Furstin (Kataloge des Rheinischen Landesmuseums Bonn) Rheinland-Verlag in Kommission bei R. Habelt

Jope, M. 2000. Early Celtic Art in the British Isles. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Joy, J. 2010. Portable Antiquities Scheme, record number: SWYOR-CFE7F7. Available at: https://finds.org.uk/database/artefacts/record/id/392736

Joy, J. 2010. Iron Age mirrors: A biographical approach. British Archaeological Reports, British Series, 518

Joy, J. 2015. Approaching Celtic art. In J. Farley & F.Hunter (eds), Celts: Art and identity, 37–51. London: British Museum Press.

Joy, J. 2015. Connections and separation? Narratives of Iron Age art in Britain and its relationship with the continent. In H. Anderson-Whymark, D. Garrow & F. Sturt (eds), Continental Connections: Exploring cross- Channel relationships from the Mesolithic to the Iron Age, 145–65. Oxford: Oxbow Books

Joy, J. 2016. Hoards as collections: Re-examining the Snettisham Iron Age Hoards from the perspective of collecting practice. World Archaeology 82(2), 239–53

Joy, J. 2018. Snettisham: Shining new light on old treasure. Jewellery History Today 31, 3-5

Joy, J. 2019. A power to intrigue? Exploring the ‘timeless’ qualities of the so-called ‘Grotesque’ Iron Age from Snettisham, Norfolk. Oxford Journal of Archaeology. 38(4), 464–475.

Joy J and Farley J (eds) Forthcoming, The Snettisham Treasure. (London: British Museum Research Publication 225).

La Niece, S; Farley, J; Meeks, N & Joy, J. 2018. Gold in Iron Age Britain. In Schwab, R; Milcent, P-Y; Armbruster, B & Pernicka, E (eds), Early Iron Age Gold in Celtic Europe: Science, technology and Archaeometry. Proceedings of the International Congress held in Toulouse, France, 11-14 March 2015, 407-430. Rahden: Verlag Marie Leidorf GmbH

Leeds, E.T. 2002(1933). Celtic Ornament in the British Isles. New York: Dover

Longworth, I. 1992. Snettisham revisited. International Journal of Cultural Property 1(2), 333–42

Macdonald, P. 2007. Perspectives on insular La Tène art. In Haselgrove & Moore (eds), The Later Iron Age in Britain and Beyond. Oxford: Oxbow 329–38

MacGregor, M. 1976. Early Celtic Art in Northern Britain. Leicester: Leicester University Press.

Machling, T. & Williamson, R. 2016. The Netherurd torc terminal – insights into torc technology. PAST: The Newsletter of the Prehistoric Society 84 (Autumn 2016), 3–5

Machling, T & Williamson, R. 2018. Did Vikings ‘nick’ the Newark torc…and the West Lindsey and Towton torcs too. Available at: https://atomic-temporary-171010983.wpcomstaging.com/2022/05/17/did-vikings-nick-the-newark-torc-and-the-west-lindsey-and-towton-torcs-too/

Machling, T & Williamson, R. 2018. Did Vikings ‘nick’ the Newark torc…and the West Lindsey and Towton torcs too. Available at: https://atomic-temporary-171010983.wpcomstaging.com/2022/05/17/did-vikings-nick-the-newark-torc-and-the-west-lindsey-and-towton-torcs-too/

Machling, T & Williamson, R. 2018. ‘Up Close and Personal’: The later Iron Age Torcs from Newark, Nottinghamshire and Netherurd, Peeblesshire. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. 84. CUP. doi:10.1017/ppr.2018.7

Machling, T & Williamson, R. 2019. ‘Damn clever metal bashers’: The thoughts and insights of 21st century goldsmiths, silversmiths and jewellers regarding Iron Age gold torus torcs. In C. Gosden, H. Chittock, C. Nimura & P. Hommel (eds), Art in the Eurasian Iron Age: Context, connections, and scale. Oxford: Oxbow

Machling, T. & Williamson, R. 2019. ‘”Cut and shuts”: The reworking of Iron Age gold torus torcs’, Later Prehistoric Finds Group Newsletter 13 (Summer 2019), 4-7

Machling, T. & Williamson, R. 2020. Thoughts on the Grotesque torc and the Snettisham (Ken Hill) hoards in the light of new research. Available at: https://atomic-temporary-171010983.wpcomstaging.com/2020/09/22/thoughts-on-the-grotesque-torc/

Machling, T. & Williamson, R. 2020. ‘Investigating the manufacturing technology of later Iron Age torus torcs’. Historical Metallurgy. 52, 2 (for 2018), 83-95.

Machling, T. & Williamson, R. 2021. Rings of truth: New insights into torc technology. British Archaeology. September/October 2021, 42-47. 

Machling, T. 2022. Pattern and purpose: a new story about the creation of the Snettisham Great torc. Available at: https://atomic-temporary-171010983.wpcomstaging.com/2022/05/29/pattern-and-purpose-a-new-story-about-the-creation-of-the-snettisham-great-torc/

Maryon, H. 1944. The Bawsey Torc. The Antiquaries Journal, 24, 149-151

Meeks, N., Mongiatti, A. & Joy, J. 2014. Precious metal torcs from the Iron Age Snettisham treasure: Metallurgy and analysis. In E. Pernicka & R. Schwab (eds), Under the Volcano: Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Metallurgy of the European Iron Age (SMEIA), 135–56. Rahden: Verlag Marie Leidorf GmbH

Megaw, J.V.S & R. 1995. The nature and function of Celtic art. In Green, M. (ed) The Celtic World. London: Routledge, 345-375

Megaw, J.V.S. 2001. Celtic Art from its Beginnings to the Book of Kells. New York: Thames & Hudson

National Museum of Scotland. 2018. AHRC Research Network on gold in Britain’s auriferous regions, 2450–800 BC. Available at: https://www.nms.ac.uk/collections-research/collections-departments/scottish-history-and-archaeology/projects/prehistoric-gold-in-britain/ [Accessed 28/6/22]

Nørgaard, H. W. 2018. Bronze Age Metalwork: Techniques and Traditions in the Nordic Bronze Age 1500–1100 BC. Archaeopress.

Northover, P. 1992. Materials issues in the Celtic coinage. In Mays, M (ed) Celtic coinage: Britain and beyond. British Archaeological Reports British Series 222, Oxford, 235-299

Northover, P. 1995. The technology of metalwork: Bronze and gold. In Green, M. (ed) The Celtic World. London: Routledge, 285-309

Norwich Castle Museum & Art Gallery. 2018. The south-west Norfolk torc. Available at: https://www.artfund.org/supporting-museums/art-weve-helped-buy/artwork/9502/electrum-torc [Accessed 28/6/22]

Owles, E. 1969. The Ipswich gold torcs. Antiquity, 43, 208-212

Owles, E. 1971. The sixth Ipswich torc. Antiquity. 45, 180

Painter, K. S. 1971. An Iron Age gold-alloy torc from Glascote, Tamworth, Staffs. Transactions of the South Staffordshire Archaeological and Historical Society 11, 1969-70, 1-6.

Parfitt, K 1995. Iron Age Burials from Mill Hill, Deal. British Museum Press, London.

Piggott, S. 1959. The Carnyx in Early Iron Age Britain. Antiquaries Journal 39, 19–32

Piggott, S. 1970. Early Celtic Art: From its origins to its aftermath. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Raftery, B. 1983. A catalogue of Irish Iron Age antiquities. Marburg: Druckerei Kempkes.

Schwab, R; Milcent, P-Y; Armbruster, B & Pernicka, E (eds). 2018. Early Iron Age Gold in Celtic Europe: Science, technology and Archaeometry. Proceedings of the International Congress held in Toulouse, France, 11-14 March 2015, 431-440. Rahden: Verlag Marie Leidorf GmbH

Sealey, P.R. 1979. The later history of Icenian electrum torcs. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 49, 165–78

Sheridan, A. 2018. The Knowes of Trotty Discs. Available at: https://www.nms.ac.uk/collections-research/collections-departments/scottish-history-and-archaeology/projects/prehistoric-gold-in-britain/gold-object-of-the-week/gold-object-of-the-week-no-3/ [Accessed 28/6/22].

Snell, K. D. M. 1996. The apprenticeship system in British history: The fragmentation of a cultural institution. History of Education 25(4), 303–21.

Spratling, M. G. 1972. Southern British decorated bronzes of the late pre-Roman Iron Age. Ph.D. thesis, University of London.

Standish, C. D., Dhuime, B., Hawkesworth, C.J., Pike, A. W. G. 2015. A Non-local source of Irish Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age gold. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. 81. 149-177. CUP.

Stead, I. M. 1985. Celtic Art. London, British Museum Press.

Stead, I.M. 1991. The Snettisham treasure: Excavations in 1990. Antiquity 65, 447–64

Stead, I. M. 1996. Celtic Art in Britain before the Roman Conquest. 2nd ed. London: British Museum Press

Stead, I. M. 2009. The Chronology of La Tène Art in Britain. In Relics of Old Decency: Archaeological Studies in Later Prehistory. Festschrift for Barry Raftery, G. Cooney, K. Becker, J. Coles, M. Ryan, and S. Sievers (eds), 323–32. Dublin: Wordwell.

Stead, I. M. 2014. Snettisham Swansong. In Celtic Art in Europe: Making Connections, C. Gosden, S.Crawford, and K. Ulmschneider (eds), 297–303. Oxford: Oxbow Books

Swift, E. 2021. ‘Bracelets and Torcs’ in A Social Archaeology of Roman and Late Antique Egypt: Artefacts of Everyday Life by Swift, E; Stoner, J & Pudsey, A. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

Tylecote, R.F. 1986. The Prehistory of Metallurgy in the British Isles. London: Institute of Metals

Warner, R. 1982: The Broighter hoard: a reappraisal and the iconography of the collar. In Scott, B. (ed), Studies on Early Ireland, 1982, 29-38

Warner, R., Chapman, R., Cahill, M. & Moles, N. 2009. The gold source found at last? Archaeology Ireland 23 (2). 22

Whitaker, T.D. 1816. Leodis and Elmete. Leeds: Robinson, Holdsworth & Hurst

Wyss, R. 1975. Der Schatzfund von Erstfeld: frühkeltischer Goldschmuck aus den Zentralalpen. Archäologische Forschungen. Gesellschaft für das Schweizerische Landesmuseum.

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